Newmark has been criticized for his strong prescriptivism, and the language of his evaluations still bears traces of what he himself calls the ‘pre-linguistics era’ of translation studies: translations are ‘smooth’ or ‘awkward’, while translation itself is an ‘art’ (if semantic) or a ‘craft’ (if communicative). Nonetheless, the large number of examples in Newmark’s work provide ample guidance and advice for the trainee and many of the questions he tackles are of important practical relevance to translation (see also, Newmark 1993). It should also be noted that in his more recent discourse (e.g. Pedrola 1999, Newmark forthcoming), he has emphasized the aesthetic principles of writing and an ethical and truth-seeking function for translation (Munday, 2012, p. 72).

Bibliography: Munday, J. (2012). Introducing translation studies: Theories and applications (3rd ed.). London & New York: Routledge.